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Anchoring, biases, curse of knowledge: Mistakes that lead to inaccurate judgements at work

Social scientists study how cognitive bias or stereotyping impacts workplace behaviours.

ET Bureau|
Nov 18, 2019, 09.50 AM IST
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Your judgements are influenced by what springs most easily to mind.
Your judgements are influenced by what springs most easily to mind.
Everyone has his or her own worldview. But while interpreting or making judgements our brains are tuned in such a way that all of us are prone to making mistakes. Experts have identified more than 180 cognitive biases that warp the perception of what is real. Social scientists study how cognitive bias or stereotyping impacts workplace behaviours. This infographic — from School of Thought — lists 24 such mental mistakes that may lead to inaccurate judgements.

Anchoring
The first thing you judge influences your judgement of all that follows.

Backfire effect
When your core beliefs are challenged, it can cause you to believe even more strongly.

Sunk cost fallacy

You irrationally cling to things that have already cost you something.

Confirmation bias
You favour things that confirm your existing beliefs.

Barnum effect
You see personal specifics in vague statements by filling in the gaps.

Your preference for a just world makes you presume that it exists.
Your preference for a just world makes you presume that it exists.


Availability heuristic
Your judgements are influenced by what springs most easily to mind.

Dunning-kruger effect
The more you know, the less confident you’re likely to be.

Declinism
You remember the past as better than it was, and expect the future to be worse than it will likely be.

Curse of knowledge
Once you understand something you presume it to be obvious to everyone.

Just world hypothesis

Your preference for a just world makes you presume that it exists.

Framing effect
You allow yourself to be unduly influenced by context and delivery.

In-group bias
You unfairly favour those who belong to your group.

Fundamental attribution error
You judge others on their character, but yourself on the situation.

You believe your failures are due to external factors, yet you’re personally responsible for your successes.
You believe your failures are due to external factors, yet you’re personally responsible for your successes.


Placebo effect
If you believe you’re taking medicine it can sometimes ‘work’ even if it’s fake.

Halo effect

How much you like someone, or how attractive they are, influences your other judgements of them.

Bystander effect
You presume someone else is going to do something in an emergency situation.

Groupthink
You let the social dynamics of a group situation override the best outcomes.

Self-serving bias
You believe your failures are due to external factors, yet you’re personally responsible for your successes.

Reactance
You’d rather do the opposite of what someone is trying to make you do.

Negativity bias
You allow negative things to disproportionately influence your thinking.

Say Goodbye To Work Worries: 5 Natural Methods To Beat Stress

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19 Jul, 2018
A recent study by Optum found that 46% of the Indian workforce reports suffering from some form of stress.Don't let your busy and stressful worklife take a toll on you. Excessive stress can have a negative effect on your body, mood, as well as behaviour, ranging from headaches, anxiety, fatigue and irritability.Dr Hariprasad, Ayurveda Expert at The Himalaya Drug Company, shares natural methods to cope with stress:
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Pessimism bias
You overestimate the likelihood of negative outcomes.

Belief bias
If a conclusion supports your existing beliefs, you’ll rationalise anything that supports it.

Optimism bias
You overestimate the likelihood of positive outcomes.

Spotlight effect
You overestimate how much people notice how you look and act.
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