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NASA scientists fly over Greenland to track melting ice

Agencies|
A study to find Earth's future
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A study to find Earth's future

NASA scientist Josh Willis is now closely studying the phenomenon in hopes of figuring out precisely how global warming is eating away at Greenland's ice. Specifically, he wants to know whether the melting is being caused more by warm air or warm seawater. The answer could be crucial to Earth's future. Water brings more heat to something frozen faster than air does, as anyone who has ever defrosted a steak under the faucet knows.

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Will Greenland melt more quickly?
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Will Greenland melt more quickly?

If Willis' theory that much of the damage is from the water turns out to be correct, he said, ``there's a lot higher potential for Greenland to melt more quickly than we thought.'' And that means seas rising faster and coastal communities being inundated more.

AP
Ice sheet is disappearing
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Ice sheet is disappearing

Greenland contains enough ice to make world sea levels rise by 20 feet if it were all to melt. In a single day this month, it lost a record 13.7 billion tons (12.5 billion metric tons) by one estimate."It's a little scary,'' Willis said as looked down on an area filled with more water than ice. ``We're definitely watching the ice sheet disappear in front of us."

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Climate change eating away the glaciers
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Climate change eating away the glaciers

There are two ways in which climate change is impacting glaciers. The most obvious way is from the warm air above, which has been brutal this summer, with a European heatwave in July working like a hairdryer on the ice. The other way is from warm, salty water, some of it from North America's Gulf Stream, nibbling at coastal glaciers from below.

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Role of water
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Role of water

When University of Georgia ice scientist Tom Mote, who isn't part of this project, started studying Greenland's glaciers in the early 1990s, researchers really didn't think the water was a big factor. Willis' project _ called Oceans Melting Greenland, or OMG _ is showing that it is. Now the question is how much and how fast. What Willis is measuring is the water 660 feet (200 meters) or more below the surface, which is warmer and saltier than the stuff that touches the air. It's this deep water that does the major damage.

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How they measure temperature and salinity
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How they measure temperature and salinity

To measure this, NASA is spending five years crisscrossing the island in a tricked-out 77-year-old DC-3 built for World War II. Willis, project manager Ian McCubbin and mechanic Rich Gill drop long, cylindrical probes through a special tube in the floor of the plane, watching as the sensors parachute down and then dive into the chilly water. McCubbin then waits for a tone on his computer that tells him the probe is underwater and measuring temperature and salinity. When all of the flight's five probes start signalling _ with a sound McCubbin likens to "a fax machine or an AOL modem" _ he and Willis high-five.

AP
Next Stop!
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Next Stop!

Meanwhile, pilots Andy Ferguson and Don Watrous bank the plane toward the blue-green spots, looking for the next target and pointing out stunning giant icebergs and signs of glacial retreat over the radio.

AP
Water weakens glaciers
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Water weakens glaciers

If the water is playing a much bigger role than scientists thought, it could mean seas will be rising faster and higher than expected. That's because 90% of the heat energy from climate change goes into the oceans, Willis said. Warm water provides ``a bigger bang for the buck'' than air when it comes to melting ice, Willis said. Just how crucial seawater is to melting was illustrated, somewhat paradoxically, by the Jakobshavn glacier, the fast-shrinking glacier on Greenland's more populated west coast. In recent years, it suddenly started to grow a bit, probably because of cooling of waters as a result of a temporary shift in weather and water-current patterns, Willis said. In general, oceans warm up much more slowly than the air, yet they stay warmer longer. The water weakens glaciers and causes icebergs to break loose. Those icebergs eventually melt, adding to the seas.

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How fast will the glacier melt?
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How fast will the glacier melt?

A NASA satellite found that Greenland's ice sheet lost about 255 billion metric tons a year between 2003 and 2016, with the loss rate generally getting worse. It will take centuries for all of Greenland's massive ice sheet to melt, but how fast is the key question. If warm water plays a bigger role than scientists suspect, by the year 2100, Greenland alone could cause 3 or 4 feet (more than 1 meter) of sea-level rise, Willis said.

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